Science

More Than 100 Gather to Honor Joost Oppenheim on His 80th Birthday

Portrait of Joost Oppenheim

Joost Oppenheim, M.D.

By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer

They came from as far away as Russia and Japan, and from as nearby as the NCI at Frederick/Fort Detrick campus, Bethesda, and Baltimore, all with one purpose: to honor the mentor, colleague, and friend they have in Joost Oppenheim, as he celebrated his 80th birthday.

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HIV Integration at Certain Sites in Host DNA Is Linked to the Expansion and Persistence of Infected Cells

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In an untreated patient, most HIV-infected cells die within one or two days. A small fraction of the infected cells is long-lived. Successfully treating a patient with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) prevents any additional cells from becoming infected, and all of the short-lived infected cells die. Although some long-lived infected cells also die, some long-lived cells persist in patients, preventing them from being cured. Some infected cells can grow and divide, and some of these expanded clones of infected cells, which can be identified by the location of the provirus in the host DNA, can persist for more than 10 years in patients.

Editor’s note: This article was originally published on the Center for Cancer Research website.

When the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infects a cell, the virus inserts a copy of its genetic material into the host cell’s DNA. The inserted genetic material, which is also called a provirus, is used to produce new viruses. Because the viral DNA can be inserted at many sites in the host cell DNA, the site of integration marks each infected cell. Patients infected with HIV are currently treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), which prevents viral replication in the majority of treated patients. When cART is initiated, most HIV-infected cells die in one or two days, and more of the infected cells die over a period of weeks to months. However there are some long-lived infected cells that do not die, which prevents patients from being cured.

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New Mouse Model May Aid in Developing Effective Therapies for Ovarian Cancer

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Allograft models were developed by transplanting tumor fragments into the ovaries of recipient mice. Tumor fragments were obtained from genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models that developed ovarian tumors after the induction of genetic alterations similar to those observed in human patients. These genetic events, within several months, lead to ovarian tumor development similar to what is seen in human serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC). Using murine allograft models of SEOC results in faster tumor growth and allows for large cohort production, which represents a valuable tool for preclinical testing of therapeutic agents.

By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer

A new genetically engineered mouse model appears promising as an effective tool for preclinical testing of novel therapies for ovarian cancer, which tends to be diagnosed in late stage. There are few effective treatments for the disease.

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